**Winsorizing***: *Substitute outliers with the highest value that isn’t an outlier.

**Using Z-scores:** Replacing extreme scores with a score 3 standard deviations from the mean. A *z*-score of 3.29 constitutes an outlier (see 5.3.1) so we can calculate what score would give rise to a *z*-score of 3.29 (or perhaps 3) by rearranging the *z*-score equation, which gives us *X *= (*z * *s*) + *X*. All we’re doing is calculating the mean (*X*) and standard deviation (*s*) of the data and, knowing that *z *is 3 (or 3.29 if you want to be exact), adding three times the standard deviation to the mean.